ECOS 2016

Low-cost shuttle transfer


Prof. Dr. Matija Tuma, retired professor at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana

Prof. Dr. Zoran Rant

Prof. Dr. Matija Tuma is retired professor at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He graduated at FME in 1962 under supervision of Prof. Dr. Zoran Rant. From 1966 he participated as an engineer in many commercial projects for Swiss company ABB in the field of fossil fuel and nuclear power plants all over the world. He completed his PhD study at ETH Zürich, Switzerland in 1978 under supervision of Prof. Dr. Peter Grassmann. He wanted to contribute to development of his own country so he returned home and worked in the Slovenian industry, where he led many important industrial and infrastructure projects. In 1982 he began his professorship at FME. During his work at FME he was also head of Laboratory for Heat and Power and head of Department of Energy Engineering. During 1995-97 he was the dean of FME. His research topics focused on thermodynamic analyses of energy conversion systems especially combined gas turbine cycles and combined heat and power processes. His opus comprises over 50 SCI papers, over 70 conference papers and five textbooks as well as many other expert contributions. He also has been writing belletristic literature: three incredible masterpieces have been published so far. He was member of many expert associations, scientific boards and advisory committees in Slovenian and international industry and scientific community.


In May 1953, The Society of German Engineers (VDI) and The German Association for refrigeration (DKV) organised a joint consultation on heating and cooling technology in Lindau / Bad Schachen at Lake Constance. After the lectures about the evaluation processes and the definition of efficiency by taking into account the other main sentence of thermodynamics, a discussion on "technical working ability" has developed. Debate was attended by well-known professors Fran Bošnjaković (1902 - 1993), Peter Grassmann (1907 - 1994) and Rudolf Plank (1886-1973). It was Prof. Plank who has already suggested for several times that a "technical working ability" should find a label that would be typical and internationally understandable. At this occasion, Prof. Zoran Rant stepped in the classroom and wrote the word "Exergy" on the board. By the philological way he explained the prefix "ex" and the root "ergon". His proposal to introduce a new word exergy instead of technical working ability, was well accepted especially Rudolf Plank warmly welcomed the new word. Photography from this event is still preserved [1]. This is the short description of the event, published at the 90th Anniversary of the birth of Prof. Dr. Zoran Rant, by Prof. Hans Dieter Baehr (1928 - 2014), a well-known university lecturer and a good friend of Zoran Rant. Prof. Rant, the author of the concept “exergy” will be presented in details as follows.

Osamu Motojima, DG Emeritus of the ITER Organization; President, Future Energy Research Association Kyoto University

The Role of Fusion Energy in the Future Energy Mix for the Sustainable Development of the World

Osamu Motojima (Japan, M. Physics and Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, Kyoto University), former Director General of National Institute for Fusion Science, former Director General of the ITER Organization France, President of Future Energy Research Association, Advisor to the Chairman of Chubu University, Member of the Board of Pacific Industrial co., Ltd and Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Science has been expediting himself to develop the researches in Nuclear Fusion, Plasma Physics and Fusion Engineering and Technology. After he started his carrier as fusion scientist during the dawn of the fusion research in 1976, he kept contributing to the progress of fusion energy and made a large effort to show that the Fusion Energy has become a real target in the future energy mix for the sustainable development of the world. His major contributions to this area are the successful completion of the construction of the world biggest superconducting helical machine; Large Helical Project (NIFS) from 1988 to 1998 as a project manager and intensive execution of experiments to the goal of the project on the high temperature plasma more than 100 million degrees Celsius until 2009, and after he joined the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor) as the DG in 2010, he started the real construction phase of the ITER project, made necessary progress of the project and kept solving difficult technical and political conditions until 2015. He published 450 technical papers and four books. He was awarded several international awards and prizes; i.e., Prize for Science and Technology 2006, the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and Distinguished Career Award 2008, Fusion Power Associates, USA.


The best mix of energy sources is strongly desired to prepare for the expected crisis that the Earth may encounter during the latter half of this century. This urgent situation is anticipated as a result of the monotonic increase in both energy consumption and population, as well as global warming by carbon dioxide. To realize a stable and reliable energy source to sustain human society which is, as much as possible, independent from world politics and economies, there are several necessary conditions to be considered; i.e., contribution to world peace, political feasibility, cost viability, low carbon emission, even distribution of resources and fuel, nuclear safety and non-proliferation, etc.
Since fusion energy is produced from the thermonuclear-fusion reaction among hydrogen isotopes (Deuterium and Tritium), and because it does not produce either high-level radioactive waste or carbon dioxide, it has sufficient technical potential to satisfy the above conditions. It is convincing and compelling that the fusion reaction is universally occurring in space as a hydrogen-chained reaction; i.e., the “Big Bang” spawned the origin of the energy of stars 13.7 billion years ago and the sun 4.6 billion years ago, which subsequently brought life to Earth. Fusion energy, therefore, could be the ultimate and stable energy source.
Fusion research was declassified at the second International Conference on the Peaceful Usage of Atomic Energy at Geneva in September 1958. Since then, for more than half a century, the global effort for international collaboration has been devoted to scientific research and technical development. Now, research has advanced to the stage of extracting energy from high-temperature D-T plasmas of more than 100 million degrees Celsius in the core of a large-scale, superconducting magnetic device. Fusion energy has become a real target, not just a dream for human society.
Historically, the D-T reaction was demonstrated by TFTR (USA) and JET (EU), and break-even (Q=1) was achieved by JT-60U (Japan) and JET in the 1990-2000 decade. Thus, after the successes of these projects, the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor Project (ITER: China, EU, India, Japan, Korea, Russia, and USA) was launched in 2007, with the construction phase beginning after 2010. ITER’s mission is to produce 500MW thermal output by D-T reaction around 2035 to prove the technical feasibility and viability of fusion energy. Its construction is currently progressing at its site in the South of France.
The next step of ITER is very important. Member countries of ITER have started to draw a roadmap to the Fusion Demo-Reactor. For example, China has started a new national fusion reactor project establishing a new faculty at the University of Science and Technology China (USTC) for the education of young engineers, scientists, and project managers. After the success of the ITER project, its positive economic impact will likely surge, and it is expected that stakeholders of the world’s fusion research will increase and that new fusion projects will be promoted by private, as well as public sectors.
In conclusion, fusion energy development is passing the turning point, and following the anticipated global crisis towards the end of the 21st century, it is very important to demonstrate its technical feasibility during the decade of 2030 as the prime candidate for energy mix and immediately after to start the construction of Demo-Reactor. The reason might be clear that enough lead time of several tens of years is necessary to build as required number of commercial fusion reactors. World leaders should have a long-range view of this situation.
The details of “why” and “what”, as well as the technical benefits of Fusion Research, are reported in the talk.