ECOS 2016

Low-cost shuttle transfer


Gan Zhong Xue, Assistant Chairman of the Board at ENN Group China

A novel approach to the optimization of complex energy systems by integration of information, internet, and entropy minimization, and its practical demonstrations

GAN Zhong Xue (Chinese-American, Ph.D. Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut), former Chief Research Fellow in ABB Flexible Automation Research Center US, Director of ABB and current Assistant Chairman of the Board, ENN Group China, expertizes himself in Energy Systems and Intelligent Control. He is one of the earlier experts of China’s Thousand Talents Program, and also titles as Vice President of the Association of Thousand Talents Program. He also published 50 technical papers and two books. Dr. Gan Zhongxue returned to China and joined ENN Group in 2006. He built a strong R&D core team, established the entire clean-energy technology system with proprietary technology of Ubiquitous Energy Network® , and transformed ENN Group from a simply gas distributor to clean energy systematic solution provider with international-wisely advanced technology. ENN Energy R&D Institute, founded and led by Dr. Gan, was named as International Science and Technology Cooperation base in 2009, it was also upgraded and became the State Key Laboratory of Coal-Based Low Carbon Energy. In 2010, Dr. Gan Zhongxue was awarded the State International Science and Technology Cooperation Prize, presented by former China’s Prime Minister Wenjiabao.


The impending crisis of energy use and associated climate change is intensively engaging the world in the pursuit of new approaches for future energy development. Increasing system-wide energy efficiency becomes a core objective for resolving the world’s energy problems, and it is especially so if renewable energy is incorporated. Use of distributed energy systems (DES) that supply local needs for a variety of energy needs, by using a variety of locally-available energy sources is considered to have high overall energy utilization efficiency. In addition to optimal configuration of DES systems, another important challenge is the matching of transient energy supply and demand, exacerbated by the naturally strong transience of renewable energies if they are used. To conquer the challenges, ENN National Laboratory, with cooperation from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a number of leading universities, is conducting the development and incorporation of modern information technology into the energy system design and operation. Based on control of the coupled information and energy flows through an energy system, with the objective of using the adjusted information flow to achieve a comparatively less entropic state, a new systemic concept of the Ubiquitous Energy Internet (UEI) has been proposed, and an optimization framework has been developed, that explicitly incorporates the quality of the energy used in system. ENN has tested the UEI system in 19 applications and has increased system energy efficiency through this strategy of entropy minimization as compared with energy quantity optimization alone.

Özer Arnas, Professor Emeritus at Louisiana State University

Correct Use of Thermodynamics

Özer Arnas received his PhD in ME-North Carolina State University, December '64. He is now a Professor Emeritus at Louisiana State University. He has lectured in many parts of the world, mainly on Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, Energy Conversion, Mechanical Engineering Design Methodology, and Engineering Education. He has organized over eighty conferences/sessions and has participated in over thirty educational short courses and seminars as a student and a lecturer throughout the world. Dr. Arnas is author of over one hundred fifty publications in the United States and abroad on Engineering Education, Thermodynamics, Energy Conversion, Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Design Methodology and holds a United States Patent, #5,493,855 on Turbine Having Suspended Rotor Blades issued on February 27, 1996.


Correct use of Thermodynamics starts with correct teaching of Thermodynamics. Unfortunately the word teaching is not well respected by people as experienced when technical papers that deal with teaching are rejected no matter what the content. As academicians, we have committed ourselves to teaching. Since Thermodynamics is such a fundamental topic, it must be taught precisely and practiced correctly."

Jean-Pierre Bedecarrats, Professor at the University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour

Potential role and challenges of thermal energy storage

Jean-Pierre Bédécarrats is a full professor at the University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour (France). He teaches heat transfers, applied thermodynamics and energy storage at the ENSGTI which is an engineering school specialized in industrial technology (ENSGTI). He is also deputy director of the Laboratory of Thermal energy, Energetics and Processes (LaTEP). After carrying out a PhD on the supercooling (delay at the liquid-solid transition) of the Phase Change Materials (PCMs), he works on the various applications of PCMs and especially on the latent heat energy storage. He also worked on Ice slurries composed of ice crystals dispersed in an aqueous solution as secondary refrigerants used in indirect cooling systems. His research activities, begun more than 20 years ago, constituted of experimental and numerical studies, have allowed him to specialise in the field of the solid–liquid phase change.


The increasing number of environmental restrictions as well as the growing problems of the availability of energy resources urge the energetic sector not only to develop its technologies but to use them more rationally. Energy storage makes it possible to separate the production from the use of energy in time and space. So energy storage technologies are one of the solutions to develop the use of intermittent sources of energies and are a key component to advance energy transition. The analysis explores instances in which thermal storage technologies are essential. A particular focus will be made on the use of solid-liquid Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which store energy efficiently by taking advantage of the latent heat of phase change. This keynote presents the latest developments in energy storage by using PCMs. The advances of Phase Change Slurries (PCSs) which are a mixture of PCMs and a carrier fluid are also analysed. PCS is not only a heat transfer fluid but can also store and release heat at a relatively stable temperature and has high energy density, thanks to the use of both latent heat (PCM) and sensible heat (carrier fluid).

Henrik Lund, Professor at Aalborg University; Editor-in-Chief of Elsevier International journal ENERGY

Smart Heat Europe - The design of smart heating as part of future Sustainable Energy Solutions

M.Sc.Eng., Ph.D., Dr.Techn. Henrik Lund is Professor in Energy Planning at Aalborg University and Editor-in-Chief of Elsevier International journal ENERGY. He was head of the Department of Development and Planning at Aalborg University from 1996 to 2002 and holds a PhD in Implementation of Sustainable Energy Systems (1990) and a Senior Doctoral degree in Choice Awareness and Renewable Energy Systems (2009). For more than 25 years, his area of expertise has been energy system analysis, energy planning and energy economics. Henrik Lund is the author of more than 200 books and articles including the book ''Renewable Energy Systems”. He is on the Thomson Reuters list of the most highly cited researches in the world, and the architect behind the advanced energy system analysis software EnergyPLAN.


This presentation addresses smart and efficient solutions for the future heating of buildings. The design of smart heating solutions is essential for the implementation of future sustainable energy systems for two reasons: First, savings in heat demands and heating infrastructures in the form of district heating have an important role to play in the task of increasing energy efficiency and thus making scarce resources meet future demands. And next, the heating sector carry one of the most important and least cost options of integrating fluctuating renewable energy sources into the overall system. To enable this, a holistic smart energy system must coordinate between a number of smart grid infrastructures for the different sectors in the energy system, which includes electricity grids, district heating and cooling grids, gas grids and different fuel infrastructures. As a case the presentation includes the results of the Heat Roadmap Europe studies, the first studies on the EU scale which combines geographical mapping of energy demand and supply in unprecedented detail with detailed energy system modelling. The results are recommendations for a redesign of the European heat supply to achieve the goals of the Energy Roadmap 2050 by the European Commission, but at a lower cost.

Peter Novak, Retired professor at University of Ljubljana

Sustainable energy or exergy system?

Prof. Dr. Peter Novak is retired professor at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME), University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He graduated at FME in 1961 and Dr. of Technical Sciences at FME Belgrade 1975. Dr. Peter Novak was professor and Chief Laboratory for HVAC and Solar Energy all at Fac. of Mech. Eng. Ljubjana, President of the University Council, Dean of Faculty of ME, Dean of High School for Technologies and Systems, Novo mesto and Director of the Institute for High-technologies and Systems. Presently: Vice-chairman of Scientific Committee at European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen. Most of his research was connected with heat and mass transfer in buildings and building equipment. Hi was involved in preparation of regulations and standards related to energy system and environment, special for building thermal envelope design and air pollution. From 1975 is involved in introduction of renewable energies and solar technology in energy system. Hi is proposing a sustainable energy system, based on RE. For his activities become: Honorary Member of IIR, 2003, Fellow and Life Member of ASHRAE 1999; Fellow of REHVA 2011, Honorary Member SITHOK and SLOSE. Hi is author and co-author of more than 430 scientific papers, studies, reviews, owner of 10 patents, mentor of 20 PhD students, more than 25 Master students and more than 300 students of mechanical engineering.


Do we need to buy or sell energy or exergy? Normally we are selling fuels, electricity, heat and cold. Amount of exergy in these energy carriers is very different and price doesn’t include the value or amount of exergy in it. But in real life we need energy with different amount of exergy: for heating and cooling energy mixture between small amount of the exergy and large part anergy is needed. For work and lighting the 100% of exergy is needed. Transition to sustainable energy system, without GHG emissions, based on RE, open the questions how to evaluate exergy in solar energy. How important are the irreversibility’s of our processes in solar energy conversion system. Answer is only possible if we know what type of processes will be used. There is common agreement that we need in real sustainable energy system four main energy carriers: electricity, gaseous, liquid and solid fuels to exploit at maximum the present infrastructure.
Solar energy in all form (irradiation, water flows, wind, and biomass) consists from 100% of exergy. Solar energy is for free, conversion systems are not. Our vision of the new Sustainable Energy System (SES) is based on the biomass carbon recycling using solar and planetary energy for electricity and hydrogen production. SES is based on the existing infrastructure and known chemical reactions. With regards to available renewable energy resources (RES) it is unrestricted in comparison to present fossil fuels use. The proposed SES consists of the three main energy carriers, needed in any settlement: electricity, synthetic methane (CH4) and synthetic methanol (CH3OH). The last two are the only energy carriers in nature with one carbon (in our case from biomass) with four hydrogen’s (coming in the future from electrolysis of water or other solar processes). The final price of new energy carriers will depend on how much solar exergy will be destroyed in different conversion processes. Basic analysis of present technological possibilities is presented in presentation.

Christian Bahl, Senior Scientist at Technical University of Denmark


Christian Bahl has a background in solid state physics, with a M.Sc. from Copenhagen University, Denmark followed by a PhD in experimental studies of the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles from the Technical University of Denmark in 2006. Since then Christian has worked with magnetism and magnetocalorics at Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy (now Department of Energy Conversion and Storage) at the Technical University of Denmark. He has contributed to a number of areas within magnetocalorics and magnetic refrigeration including the development and characterising of magnetocaloric materials, modelling and optimisation of permanent magnet assemblies, regenerator modelling, and magnetic refrigeration device development and design.


Energy conversion using solid state materials allows for simple and compact devices that can be used in energy applications. A range of materials exist which can be used for such solid state energy conversion. The best known ones are maybe the thermoelectric materials that can generate electricity from a temperature span or vice versa. The so-called caloric materials will change their temperature when exposed to an external field, which may be magnetic, electrical or mechanical. These can be used either for heat pumping, or for generating energy from waste heat. The available materials for solid state energy conversion technologies will be reviewed and the present state of the art of these technologies will be discussed.